Prawo09 marca, 2018

Przegląd Sądowy 3/2018

Zadośćuczynienie za naruszenie dobra osobistego w postaci więzi rodzinnej. Uwagi na tle orzecznictwa Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka oraz orzecznictwa sądów polskich.

Compensation for violation of personal good in the form of family ties. Remarks on the background of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights and the case law of Polish courts

dr hab. Grzegorz Tylec, prof. KUL
profesor nadzwyczajny w Instytucie Dziennikarstwa i Komunikacji Społecznej Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego Jana Pawła II

Zadośćuczynienie za naruszenie dobra osobistego w postaci więzi rodzinnej. Uwagi na tle orzecznictwa Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka oraz orzecznictwa sądów polskich

Compensation for violation of personal good in the form of family ties. Remarks on the background of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights and the case law of Polish courts

This article discusses and compares the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights concerning the protection of family life and the judgments of the Polish courts concerning the protection of family ties. Similarities and differences in interpretation of particular cases related to the discussed issue were indicated. The article begins an introduction to the presentation of the right to family life from the perspective of the structure of human rights and from the perspective of international law. The regulations on protection of family life included in Article 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and in Art. 9 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union have been analyzed. The judgments of the Polish courts were analyzed under the context of the interpretation of the conceptual scope of the personal good, which is the family bond and the ways in which it is determined. It was pointed out the conditions that determined the amount of redress awarded in cases of breach of the described personal good.

Słowa kluczowe:  rodzina, zadośćuczynienie, dobra osobiste, prawa człowieka

Keywords: family, redress, personal rights, human rights


dr Łukasz Węgrzynowski
członek Biura Studiów i Analiz Sądu Najwyższego

Obowiązek uiszczania opłat eksploatacyjnych na rzecz spółdzielni przez właściciela garażu

The obligation to pay maintenance fees to the housing cooperative by the owner of the garage

The issue presented in the publication deserves attention for many reasons. The provisions of the Act on housing cooperatives do not explain how to assess the situation where the ownership of the garage was established for the benefit of its user, however the housing cooperative remains the perpetual co-ususfructuary of the land on which this garage is located. In judicial practice doubts arose as to whether the garage owner is then obliged to pay maintenance fees pursuant to art. 4 of the Act on housing cooperatives, especially if he is not bound by any legal relationship with the housing cooperative.

Słowa kluczowe: spółdzielnia mieszkaniowa, garaż, opłaty eksploatacyjne, zarządzanie nieruchomością wspólną

Keywords: housing cooperative, garage, maintenance fees, management of the common property


dr Radosław Tymiński
radca prawny

Wybrane problemy praktyczne powstałe na tle przepisów dotyczących odpowiedzialności zawodowej lekarzy i lekarzy dentystów

Selected practical problems occurred against a background of regulations on professional liability of doctors and dentists

In this article, the legal problems relating to proceedings in the case of doctor’s professional liability have been presented, attempting to answer the questions as follows: if there is any need to appoint court experts in professional liability cases, if a dentist may judge in the case of a doctor and vice versa, if a trainee advocate or a trainee legal advisor may act before authorities for professional liability as authorized representative to replace an advocate or a legal advisor. Before giving an answer, the normative, system and functional analysis of the issue in question has been made, and potential procedural consequences of selection of an option considered as inappropriate have been shown as regards each question.

Słowa kluczowe: odpowiedzialność zawodowa, biegli sądowi, lekarze i lekarze dentyści, upoważnienie do zastępowania

Keywords:  professional liability of doctors, court experts, doctors, dentists


Michał Derek
doktorant w Katedrze Prawa Karnego Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, asystent radcy w Prokuratorii Generalnej Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej

Granice przestrzennego obowiązywania polskiej ustawy karnej

The boundaries of the spatial binding force of the Polish criminal law

The aim of the paper is to expound the spatial limits of the binding force of the Polish criminal provisions. In the first part the author shows the grounds for the regulations being in force providing the application of the criminal law in space. Furthermore, the concepts of „binding force” and „application” of the statute are distinguished. In the main part it is claimed that the boundary of the binding force of the criminal regulation is the illegality of the act. Hence the cases of violation of Polish rules abroad is shown. It is concluded that it is always possible to qualify the act in terms of bearing the attributes of the prohibited act. The last part contains the summary of the article.

Słowa kluczowe: prawo karne, bezprawność czynu, miejsce popełnienia czynu zabronionego, obowiązywanie ustawy karnej

Keywords: criminal law, illegality of an act, locus delicti, binding force of the criminal law


Przemysław Biernacki
notariusz

Szczególne metody uzgodnienia treści księgi wieczystej z rzeczywistym stanem prawnym

Special methods to reconcile the contents of the land and mortgage register with the actual legal status

Limited jurisdiction of the court, considering the application to make an entry in the land and mortgage register, specifically the court being bound by the content of the application and the land and mortgage register, as well as documents accompanying the application, may result in practice in discrepancy between the content of the land and mortgage register and the actual legal status, which cannot be remedied only in real estate register proceedings. The author examines the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure and rules on maintaining mortgage registers, as well as extensive jurisdiction and the legal doctrine, referring to methods of remedying the discrepancy between the content of the land and mortgage register and the actual legal status. The author’s goal is to show that in addition to usual and commonly accepted ways of updating entries in the land and mortgage register according to the current legal status of a property, there are special, alternative methods (such as consent decree and declaration of reconciliation), and although the basis of their application does not result directly from provisions of the law, they have many followers and a legal basis.

Słowa kluczowe: niezgodność treści księgi wieczystej z rzeczywistym stanem prawnym, uzgodnienie, księga wieczysta, ugoda, oświadczenie

Keywords: updating the entry in land and mortgage register according to the current legal status, updating, land and mortgage register, settlement, statement


Kazimierz J. Pawelec

Substytuowanie dowodowe nielegalnych czynności operacyjno-rozpoznawczych. Zagadnienia podstawowe

Evidence substitutions of illegal introspective – research activities

Publication details the controversies involving illiegaly – aquired criminal evidence, which could have been incorrectly implemented in the current criminal process, especially via indirect means. It has been mentioned that such actions have only resulted in supplement of illegal evidence – unacceptable form the constitutional rights point of view. Nevertheless, such illegal evidence has been judged from a legal court perspective, involving the whole accumulated legal system, even such illegal evidence, which could have been implemented during criminal process.

Słowa kluczowe:  czynności operacyjno-rozpoznawcze, organy uprawnione, policja, Centralne Biuro Antykorupcyjne, Agencja Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego i Agencja Wywiadu, Straż Graniczna, zgoda pierwotna, zgoda następcza, ocena dowodów, prokurator, dowodowy pośrednio nielegalne, zasady konstytucyjne

Keywords: introspective - research activities, entitled services, police, Central Anti – Corruption Bureau, The Internal Security Agency, Intelligence Service, Boundary Guard, prime acceptance, after – acceptance, evidence analysis, prosecutor, indirectly illegal evidence, constitutional rules


mgr Kamil Siwek
doktorant w Katedrze Prawa Karnego na Wydziale Prawa i Administracji Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu

Błąd co do prawa a dyrektywa języka prawniczego

Error of law and the legal language directive

The subject of the article is the issue of the originally justified error of law as provided for in Article 30 of the Penal Code and it mainly consists of an attempt at answering the question whether the reconstitution of the content of a norm that is sanctioned on the basis of the legal language directive, that is, the legal language in concreto, may have its consequences in the form of the perpetrator's actions in the context of a legitimate objection to the law. There is no doubt that the legal language may differently (broader or narrower) shape the meaning of certain provisions or fragments thereof, and the sanctioned norm may be given a different scope of application or regulation, compared to the general language, also to the disadvantage of the perpetrator of an offence. This exposes the addressee of penal provisions to a risk of acting under an error of law.

Słowa kluczowe: wykładnia prawa, wykładnia językowa, dyrektywa języka prawniczego, błąd co do prawa, znajomość prawa, publikacja prawa

Keywords:  interpretation of the law, linguistic interpretation, legal language directive, error of law, knowledge of law, publication of laws


dr hab. Mariusz Załucki, prof. nadzw. Krakowskiej Akademii im. Andrzeja Frycza Modrzewskiego
adwokat

Obniżenie należności z tytułu zachowku w oparciu o zasady współżycia społecznego. Glosa do wyroku Sądu Najwyższego z 16.06.2016 r., V CSK 625/15

Reduction of legitime based on the principles of social coexistence. Gloss to the Supreme Court’s judgement of 16.06.2016, V CSK 625/15

Reducing legitime portion through the prism of abuse by the heir of the rules of social coexistence raises certain doubts. The Supreme Court ruling is one of the stages of clarifying these doubts. In the view of the Court, the mechanism provided for in Article 5 of the Civil Code may be applied in the relationship between the testator and the person entitled to the legitime. Despite the criticism of the doctrine, the author shares this view and also argues for its legitimacy.

Słowa kluczowe:  zachowek, zasady współżycia społecznego, nadużycie prawa podmiotowego, 5 Kodeksu cywilnego

Keywords: legitime, principles of social coexistence, abuse of subjective right, Art. 5 of the Civil Code


dr Wojciech Jasiński
Katedra Postępowania Karnego, Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii, Uniwersytet Wrocławski

Nadzór prokuratora nad postępowaniem przygotowawczym. Glosa do wyroku Sądu Najwyższego z 22.02.2017 r., IV KK 282/16

Right to file an act of indictment in criminal fiscal case supervised by the prosecutor. Commentary to the judgment of the Supreme Court of 22 February 2017 (IV KK 282/16)

In the commentary the judgment of the Supreme Court of 22 February 2017 (IV KK 282/16) the author analyses the difference in opinion between justices of the Supreme Court relating to the entitlement of the non-prosecutoral authorities conducting preliminary proceedings in criminal fiscal case, which is supervised by the prosecutor, to file an act of indictment to the court. The critical assessment of two competing points of view expressed in the judgment leads to a conclusion that the majority’s position allowing non-prosecutorial authorities to file an act of indictment to the court is correct. The prosecutorial supervision over preliminary investigation is not a factor that excludes such possibility.

Słowa kluczowe: nadzór prokuratora nad postępowaniem przygotowawczym, akt oskarżenia, postępowanie karne skarbowe

Keywords: prosecutorial supervision over preliminary proceedings, act of indictment, criminal fiscal proceedings

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