Prawo09 kwietnia, 2018

Przegląd Sądowy 4/2018

Dobro osobiste jako dobro zindywidualizowane.

Personal interest as an individualised interest

dr Teresa Grzeszak
Wydział Prawa i Administracji, Uniwersytet Warszawski

Dobro osobiste jako dobro zindywidualizowane

Personal interest as an individualised interest

Only those values that objectively directly concern the rightholder and are closely related to him are his/her personal interests, rather than those that are only important to him/her. The concept of personal interests as referred to in Art. 23 and 24 of the Polish Civil Code should take into account the criterion of individualisation, because it is only then that interests are they fit to become objects of specific control of the rightholder. Thanks to individualisation, it is possible to refuse to protect all ideal interests that are not personal interests, but in fact other people's and general public interests, or ones that are only connected with a family relationship. The effects of the courts discovering numerous new personal interests that are not sufficiently individualised to be protected interests are analysed extensively. The idea of equating personal interests’ violations with the mere experience of mental suffering is criticised.

Słowa kluczowe:  dobro osobiste, prawo osobiste, zindywidualizowany charakter dobra osobistego, zindywidualizowany interes prawny uprawnionego, więź rodzinna, interes niemajątkowy, szkoda niemajątkowa, ochrona uczuć człowieka, ochrona dóbr osobistych, art. 23 Kodeksu cywilnego, art. 24 Kodeksu cywilnego, neminem laedere, treść prawa osobistego, wartości świata uczuć człowieka, orzecznictwo sądów polskich dotyczące dóbr osobistych

Keywords: personal interest, personal right, individualised character of a personal interest, individualised legal interest of the rightholder, family bond, non-pecuniary interest, non-financial damage, protection of human feelings, protection of personal interests, Art. 23 of the Civil Code, Art. 24 of the Civil Code, neminem laedere, substance of a personal interest, values of the realm of human feelings, Polish case law on personal interests

dr Maciej Giaro
Katedra Prawa Cywilnego Porównawczego, Wydział Prawa i Administracji, Uniwersytet Warszawski

Zarys koncepcji posłannictwa biernego

An outline of passive messenger concept

The article approaches the Germanic concept of the passive messenger against the background of the Polish civil law. This concept was identified in the Polish legal literature, but it still remains unexamined, even in its fundamental framework. The considerations developed in the article include the questions of: relevance of the distinction between a passive messenger and a passive representative on one side and an active messenger on the other side; assignment of the passive messenger status; moment of the effectiveness of the declaration of intent transmitted to the passive messenger and its distortion by the passive messenger. The discussed arguments lead to distinguishing the concept of the passive messenger in the Polish civil law.

Słowa kluczowe: posłaniec bierny, posłaniec czynny, przedstawiciel, oświadczenie woli, adresat

Keywords: passive messenger, active messenger, representative, declaration of intent, addressee

dr Michał Hejbudzki
adwokat, adiunkt w Katedrze Prawa Cywilnego II i Gospodarczego WPiA UWM w Olsztynie

Zgoda na zbycie nieruchomości rolnej w świetle art. 2b ust. 3 ustawy o kształtowaniu ustroju rolnego

Agreement on the sale of agricultural land in the light of Article 2b paragraph 3 of the Act on shaping the agricultural system

The purpose of the considerations presented in the study is to clarify and diagnose the normative environment which determines obtaining permission to sell agricultural property within 10 years following its acquisition pursuant to Art. 2b (3) of the Act on shaping the agricultural system.
Conducted analyses lead to the conclusion that strictly literal interpretation of the conditions for obtaining the permission to sell agricultural property may, in certain situations, lead to distortion and misinterpretation of the content. As a consequence, it is necessary to refer to other forms of interpretation, such as the legislator's intentions, the coherence of the legal system, the rightness and justice and social, economic and business consequences of the judicial decision as well as the axiological rationality of the legislator. Identical criteria and guidelines should be used when determining the content of a court decision on permission as well as specifying procedural aspects of such a decision.

Słowa kluczowe: nieruchomość rolna, sądowa zgoda na wcześniejsze zbycie nieruchomości rolnej, rolnik indywidualny

Keywords:  agricultural property, court permission for early sale of agricultural land, individual farmer

Wiola Friedrich
Zakład Psychologii Klinicznej i Sądowej, Wydział Pedagogiki i Psychologii, Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach

Oskarżony jako podmiot badań psychologicznych w procesie karnym – aspekty prawne i psychologiczne

The psychological evaluation of defendants and suspects - legal and psychological aspects

The issue of psychologist involvement in criminal proceedings is variety. Very often criminal trial is based on evidence from expert opinions. This can be connected with ever-growing need to supplement the scope of factual findings, which, due to the lack of special news, can not be done by the court itself. This obligation is connected with truth rule with is one of the most important rule in criminal trial. Expert is to provide special expertise to the procedural organs and thus facilitate the assessment of evidence and to make the findings of fact based on that fact. The effect of expert work – opinion, is to be a tool that will support the decision-making process. A psychologist may appear in various roles in criminal proceedings. From the role of consultant, mediator, therapist to expert. This article is an attempt of characterizing the role of the forensic psychologist in investigating the defendant, taking into account the current legal status.

Słowa kluczowe: proces karny, badania psychologiczne, oskarżony, psycholog

Keywords: criminal trial, psychological investigation, offender, psychologist

dr Robert Talaga
starszy referendarz sądowy w Wojewódzkim Sądzie Administracyjnym w Poznaniu

Obowiązek ponoszenia kosztów sądowych przez kuratora spadku w postępowaniu przed sądami administracyjnymi

Obligation of bearing court’s costs by curator of the estate in proceedings before administrative courts

The death of a person authorized to conduct proceedings before administrative court leads to significant subjective changes. As a result, a curator of the estate appointed by a common court may appear in proceedings before an administrative court. This situation raises doubts if curator of the estate is statutory relieved from the obligation of paying court costs. Exceptions to the general rules of bearing costs should not be applied broadly. Consequently, it is not possible to exempt the curator of the estate from statutory costs. The legislator did not express such a will in any applicable regulations.

Słowa kluczowe: kurator spadku, koszty sądowe, zwolnienie ustawowe od kosztów sądowych, postępowanie przed sądami administracyjnymi

Keywords: curator of the estate, proceedings before administrative courts, court costs, statutory relief from court costs

prof. dr hab. Mirosław Nesterowicz
Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu

Przegląd orzecznictwa europejskiego w sprawach medycznych (w latach 2015–2016 – wybrane orzeczenia)

The Review of the European case law in the area of medical liability (for the years 2015–2016 – selected judgments)

The author presents the most significant medical liability cases decides by the courts of Eropean countries in the years 2015–2016. The judgments that are analyzed concern the following issues: liability of physician and hospital for pecuniary and non-pecuniary damage; compensation for loss of support; wrongful conception; wrongful birth; wrongful life; damage caused by compulsory vaccination and state liability; the informational duties of doctors regarding the risks and effects of medical procedures as well alternative treatment methods; aesthetic surgery – informed consent; loss of chance of recovery and survival; products liability of the manufacturer for defective drugs, obligatory autopsy – emotional harm; insemination post mortem; extent doctor´s duty to keep records.

Słowa kluczowe:  prawo medyczne, orzecznictwo europejskie, odpowiedzialność lekarza i szpitala za szkodę, odpowiedzialność producenta za wadliwe leki, obowiązkowe szczepienia, zapłodnienie post mortem

Keywords: medical law, European case law, liability of physician and hospital for damage, products liability of the manufacturer for defective drugs, compulsory vaccination, insemination post mortem

dr hab. Wojciech Brzozowski
Zakład Prawa Wyznaniowego, Wydział Prawa i Administracji, Uniwersytet Warszawski

Członkostwo w związku wyznaniowym. Glosa do wyroku Sądu Najwyższego z 15.09.2017 r., III CSK 241/16

Membership in a religious association. Comment on the judgment of the Supreme Court of 15.09.2017, III CSK 241/16

According to the judgment of the Supreme Court of 15.09.2017, III CSK 241/16, a Jewish religious community has no right to deny membership to any person of Jewish religion who fits the statutory criteria and wishes to join that community. The Court also declared that the decisions in matters concerning membership in a religious association may be subject to judicial review. The author of the comment indicates the faults of this interpretation and points out that it runs counter to the principle of autonomy of religious associations. In the light of the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, the public authorities may not oblige a religious community to admit new members or exclude existing ones. Such decisions should be made by religious associations at their own discretion. Accordingly, statutory criteria of membership in a Jewish religious community need to be abolished and they should be defined exclusively in its internal regulations.

Słowa kluczowe: autonomia religijna, wolność religijna, gmina wyznaniowa żydowska, kryteria członkostwa

Keywords:  religious autonomy, freedom of religion, Jewish religious community, membership criteria

dr Damian Tokarczyk

Postacie zjawiskowe przestępstwa. Glosa do wyroku Sądu Apelacyjnego we Wrocławiu z 25.10.2016 r., II AKa 252/16

Phenomenal figures of an offense. Comment to the judgement of Court of Appeal in Wrocław dated 25 October 2016, II AKa 252/16

The publication is a commentary on the verdict of the Gdańsk Court of Appeal. The author focuses his attention on the conceptual scope of "murder" used in art. 148 § 3 of the Criminal Code in the context of the currently assumed construction of forms of criminal complicity.. Presenting the position of the types of offenses consisting in inciting and aiding as independent types of prohibited acts, the author criticizes the view of the Appeal Court that recognizes the murder as a crime that may be committed in any form of criminal complicity.

Słowa kluczowe:  współdziałanie przestępne, podżeganie, pomocnictwo, zabójstwo, zjawiskowe postacie przestępstwa

Keywords: Criminal complicity, incitement, aid, aid, murder, phenomenal forms of an offense

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