Prawo09 lutego, 2018

Przegląd Sądowy 2/2018

Terminy quasi-zawite do dochodzenia roszczeń pracowniczych w świetle zmian Kodeksu pracy.

Quasi-final dates for filing employee claims in the light of the amendments to the Labour Code

dr hab. Helena Szewczyk
Wydział Prawa i Administracji, Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach

Terminy quasi-zawite do dochodzenia roszczeń pracowniczych w świetle zmian Kodeksu pracy

Quasi-final dates for filing employee claims in the light of the amendments to the Labour Code

Quasi-final dates are dates similar to final dates the expiry of which does not result, in each case, in the definitive loss of the possibility of filing a claim. Dates provided for in Art. 264 of the Labour Code,, recently extended to 21 days, are still too short. The concept of drawing an analogy and Art. 8 of the Labour Code in the scope of the regulations regarding the statute of limitations in relation to final and quasi-final dates for filing employee claims are based neither on the Labour Code nor on the Civil Code. However, pursuant to the current law, it appears that Art. 8 of the Labour Code may be applied with caution in relation to quasi-final dates in the Labour Law, but only to those circumstances to which Art. 265 of the Labour Code is not applicable.

Słowa kluczowe:  pracownik, Kodeks pracy, roszczenia pracownicze, termin quasi-zawity, termin zawity

Keywords: family, redress, personal rights, human rights

Bartosz Kucharski
adiunkt w Katedrze Prawa Gospodarczego i Handlowego na Wydziale Prawa i Administracji Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, adwokat

Odpowiedzialność ubezpieczyciela za czynności agenta

Liability of the insurer for the activities of his agent

The article regards the interpretation of the art. 11 section 1 Law of 22 of May 2003 on Insurance Intermediation which introduces the liability of the insurer for the losses caused by insurance agent in relation to the performance of agency activities. According to the author the mentioned regulation establishes tort liability based on risk principle (no fault liability). A plaintiff to establish liability of an insurer should prove five prerequisites that are: existence of the agency relation at the moment of the wrongdoer acting, unlawfulness of the agent’s acting, a loss and its extent, causal connection between the agent’s acting and the loss and causing the loss in relation with the performance of the agency activities. The latter principle should be understood functionally and detachably from the scope of the empowerment of the individual agent. Even in case when all the prerequisites are fulfilled the insurer may defend himself indicating contributory behaviour of the aggrieved person and in exceptional cases acting of the aggrieved at his own risk which could release the insurer from liability.

Słowa kluczowe: umowa ubezpieczenia, ubezpieczyciel, agent, odpowiedzialność, pośrednictwo ubezpieczeniowe, dystrybucja ubezpieczeń

Keywords: insurance contract, Insurer, Agent, liability, insurance intermediaries, insurance distribution

dr hab. Krzysztof Zagrobelny, prof. UWr
Zakład Prawa Cywilnego i Prawa Międzynarodowego Prywatnego, Instytut Prawa Cywilnego, Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii, Uniwersytet Wrocławski

Zgoda inwestora na zawarcie umowy podwykonawczej

The investor's consent to the conclusion of the subcontracting agreement

The study is related to the selected elements of the investor's consent to the conclusion of the subcontracting agreement that is a basis of its joint and several liability for the payment of the remuneration to the subcontractor. Despite the changes in the legal situation the issue remains valid and concerns the construction contracts which were concluded before the amendment of the Article 647 (1) of the Civil Code. The author criticised the form of per facta concludentia proving that the version accepted by the judicature is questionable, without proper legal justification and often leads to consequences incompatible with the purpose for which it was implemented.

Słowa kluczowe: umowa o roboty budowlane, inwestor, wykonawca, podwykonawca, solidarna odpowiedzialność inwestora, zgoda inwestora, czynność prawna

Keywords:  contract for construction works, investor, contractor, subcontractor, joint and several liability of the investor, the investor's consent, legal action

Karol Stryjski
doktorant, Katedra Prawa Prywatnego Międzynarodowego, Wydział Prawa i Administracji, Uniwersytet Jagielloński

Wskazanie prawa właściwego dla dziedziczenia (cz. II)

Determination of the law applicable to succession (Part II)

The article continues the remarks on the method of law applicable indication in transnational succession matters, governed by the regulation of European Parliament and the Council (EU) No 650/2012. After the connecting factor indication, characterized in part one of the article, the article in part two concerns concerns the institution of closer connection clause and choice of law and clause – the last one accepted in Polish law since recently. The work includes the remarks on territorial and inter-personal conflicts of laws, which is the inevitable part of the applicable law indication, though has been not commented enough so far, both in literature and jurisdiction. In this perspective, there are presented the examples of foreign law systems, according to applicable foreign legal acts.

Słowa kluczowe: prawo spadkowe, prawo prywatne międzynarodowe, kolizja praw, Unia Europejska, dziedziczenie transgraniczne

Keywords: succession law, private international law, conflict of laws, European Union, transnational inheritance

Anna Jaworska-Wieloch

Prawnokarne problemy związane z umową leasingu na gruncie przestępstwa przywłaszczenia

Criminal problems connected with leasing contracts on relation to crime of appropriation

The advantages of leasing contracts are connected with tax regulations. It influences on commonness of concluding this agreement in civil law transactions. If the legal action is becoming more popular, breaching of contracts happens increasingly. In some cases parties to the contract breach terms and conditions in the field covered by the criminalisation. The leasing contract’s construction is specific because it doesn’t lead to transfer of ownership during the term of that agreement. Therefore, lessees often may commit the crime of appropriation.
The author carried out the review of publication and court’s decisions connected with leasing contracts on relation to the crime of appropriation. It appears that the most problematic issue focuses on the infringement legal interest in case of the payment of all fees, a behaviour featuring elements of subject-matter subjective side of offence, the moment of commission of a prohibited act and the extent of damage. The principle of law harmonisation and subsidiarity of criminal law require confrontation between views of criminal and civil experts. It appears that in same cases the thoughts of criminal courts didn’t find purchase in civil law or that their arguments were not pertinent.

Słowa kluczowe: przestępstwo przywłaszczenia, leasing, strona podmiotowa, szkoda przy przestępstwie przywłaszczenia

Keywords: appropriation, leasing, damage

dr Wojciech Górecki
Katedra Prawa Cywilnego, Wydział Prawa i Administracji, Uniwersytet Jagielloński

Ujawnianie informacji o umowach majątkowych małżeńskich w Krajowym Rejestrze Sądowym

Disclosure of information on marital property agreements in National Court Register

In the light of the applicable legal status, there is a requirement of placing the information on concluding marital property agreement by the persons in the text of the entry into the National Court Register who ae, inter alia, business partners of personal commercial companies. The De lege lata entry in this Register does not allow, with reference to a majority of prenuptial agreements, for identification of their type by third persons. This condition is unsatisfactory as it challenges the reasonability of existing a presumption that the third persons are familiarized with the data disclosed in the National Court Register. As a result, one should apply for its changing.

Słowa kluczowe:  umowa majątkowa małżeńska, wspólnicy handlowych spółek osobowych, wpisy do Krajowego Rejestru Sądowego

Keywords: marital property agreement, partners of personal commercial companies, entries to the National Court Register

dr Krzysztof Stefaniuk
Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

Przeniesienie przez pozwanego uzyskanego samowolnie posiadania na inną osobę w toku procesu posesoryjnego – skutki materialne i procesowe. Glosa do uchwały Sądu Najwyższego z 29.06.2016 r., III CZP 25/16

Voluntarily obtained possession transferred by the defendant during the possessory legal process – material and procedural effects. Resolution of the Supreme Court of 20.06.2016, III CZP 25/16

The author of the gloss expresses a critical view of the Supreme Court opinion - nolens volens stifling the certainty of possessory judicial protection - that says that it is not possible to effectively seek action against the defendant to return persona 1 property of whose possession the plaintiff was deprived, if in the course of the possessory process the defendant passed the arbitrary possession to another person. The author argues that contrary to the assumption adopted by the Court, article 192, paragraph 3 of the civil procedure code is applicable in the possessory process, the one which allows to issue a judgment against a person who, after the initiation of the proceeding, moved the object in question (ownership of an item) to another person, so that the ruling is effective and enforceable in relation to that other person.

Słowa kluczowe: ochrona posiadania, przeniesienie posiadania w toku procesu, podstawienie procesowe, rozszerzona prawomocność materialna wyroku

Keywords:  protection of ownership, transfer of ownership in during legal process, process substitution, expanded material legitimacy of the ruling

dr Mateusz Radajewski
Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS, Wydział Prawa i Komunikacji Społecznej

Zawieszenie postępowania kasacyjnego wskutek zainicjowania sporu kompetencyjnego przed Trybunałem Konstytucyjnym. Glosa do postanowienia Sądu Najwyższego z 1.08.2017 r., II KK 313/16

Suspension of cassation proceedings as a result of the initiation of a competence dispute before the Constitutional Tribunal. Gloss to the Supreme Court's decision of 1.08.2017, II KK 313/16

The author comments on the decision of the Supreme Court of 1 August 2017, which stated that as a result of the filing by the Speaker of the Sejm of a motion for resolution of a competence dispute between the Supreme Court and the President of the Republic of Poland concerning the application of the right of grace, the cassation proceedings that this dispute concerned were suspended. The main purpose of the gloss is to answer the question whether the decision was right. To do so, the author first considers whether the motion of the Speaker of the Sejm concerns the resolution of a competence dispute within the meaning of the Constitution and the law. Negative answer to this question prompts him to conclude that the said motion was of ostensible nature and that filing it was an act of legal abuse. In conclusion, the author finds that in this status quo it was impossible for the cassation proceedings to be suspended ex lege, and therefore the Supreme Court should have continued to hear the case.

Słowa kluczowe:  spór kompetencyjny, zawieszenie postępowania, nadużycie prawa, spór o właściwość, kasacja

Keywords: competence dispute, suspension of proceedings, legal abuse, jurisdictional dispute, cassation

prof. dr hab. Mirosław Nesterowicz
Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu

Odpowiedzialność biura podróży za śmierć uczestnika wycieczki. Glosa do wyroku Sądu Apelacyjnego we Wrocławiu z 6.05.2015 r., I ACa 245/15

Travel Agency Liability for the Death of a Tour Participant. A gloss to the Wrocław Appellate Court Judgement of 6th May 2015 (I ACa 245/15)

Wrocław Appellate Court found that the travel agency is liable for the death (drowning in the sea) of package tour participants in Egypt during a facultative excursion organized there. The Court reasoned that if the travel agency (organizer of package tour) does not specify clearly that facultative excursions are to be offered and organized by the local travel agency, at a separate price, then, they are part of the package tour programme and the organizer of the package tour bears liability therefore.

Słowa kluczowe: odpowiedzialność biur podróży, wycieczka fakultatywna, szkoda na osobie uczestnika imprezy turystycznej

Keywords: liability of travel agencies, facultative excursion, personal injury of a package tour participant

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