When you are conducting an interview, keep in mind your role as the interviewer includes both conveying and obtaining information. Part of this process is knowing what interview questions to ask and perhaps even more importantly, the questions you shouldn't ask in an interview.
Conducting an interview is a major step in the process of hiring an employee. The interview is an employer's chance to obtain information from a job candidate that expands on a job application or a resume. It's also a chance for the applicant to elicit information about the business and the position to help them make a decision as to whether to accept the job offer if one is made. Therefore, it is imperative that you prepare for an interview, particularly if you're new to the hiring process.
While conducting an interview does not have to be a stiff and formal sit-down, there are distinct parts to an interview, and each of them is important. The following outline is a guide to handling each part of interview:
- Establish rapport. Greet the applicant with a pleasant smile, firm handshake, and a casual statement or two. Outline the interview objectives and structure. For example, say "In the time we have, I would like to..."
- Gather information. Verify specific information from the resume. Be certain to use open-ended questions (how, what, when, etc.), and always follow up a yes or no answer with an open-ended question.
- Give information about your business and even "sell" the position. Be sure to do this after you've let the applicants answer your interview questions. If you tell the applicants exactly what you're looking for first, they can adapt their answers to fit what they perceive as your needs.
- Close the interview. Thank the candidate for his or her attention and interest. Indicate what the next step will be and the time frame within which it will occur.
- Evaluate your notes and compare candidates. Complete an evaluation form or firm up your notes, noting specific information about the candidate wherever possible. Rate the candidate. This is crucial. You may not trust your memory to recall the detail of the interview at a later point in time.
Avoid trouble and do not make any notes about an applicant that could be discriminatory.
For example, a white male applicant for a secretarial position arrives for the interview dressed in a suit. A black female interviewing for the same position arrives wearing sweatpants and a sweatshirt. While it is legally defensible not to hire the black female because of her clothing choice, the reason for rejecting that particular applicant should factually describe that "the applicant appeared for the interview in sweatpants and a sweatshirt."
What the documentation should not be is an open-ended statement that the black female was rejected because she "did not have the proper appearance." The statement is not specific enough and could be interpreted to mean that she was rejected due to race or sex, even if that was not the case.
In conducting the interview, the most important things to keep in mind are:
- your role as the interviewer
- which questions to ask and how to ask them
- which questions not to ask
The interviewer's role
Your role as the interviewer includes conveying the following information to the applicant:
- the nature of the job
- the skills you want
- pay, although some interviewers do not discuss pay until a job offer is made
- working conditions
- information about your business
Be prepared for an applicant to turn the tables during an interview. Applicants are sharper these days, and most applicants will have some questions for you, too. For high-quality applicants, it may be the employer who has to sell his or her business as the place to work. You have to give applicants information that keeps their interest in working for you high. But don't oversell — it can lead to employee dissatisfaction or costly turnover or worse.
Questions Not to Ask in an Interview
Pre-employment interviews have traditionally been instruments for eliminating, at an early stage, unqualified persons from consideration for employment. They have also, unfortunately, often been used in such a way as to restrict or deny employment opportunities for women and members of minority groups.
If you have 15 or more employees, you are likely subject to federal laws prohibiting discrimination in hiring. Many states also have laws that mimic federal discrimination laws and apply them to smaller employers, sometimes even those employers who have one employee. Therefore, you are limited in what types of questions you can ask.
What if you're not subject to anti-discrimination laws? Even if you are not subject to laws prohibiting certain types of inquiries, we recommend that you stay away from them.
Therefore, in seeking information from a job applicant, you should ask yourself:
- Will the answer to this question, if used in making a selection, have an inequitable effect in screening out minorities or members of one sex?
- Is this information really needed to judge an applicant's competence or qualifications for the job in question?
Basically, stay away from any question that concerns:
- ethnic background
- marital status
- national origin
In addition, increasing numbers of states and municipalities have statutes that prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual lifestyle or preference, or smoking habits. Remember the rule of thumb is that if it has nothing to do with the position you're trying to fill, don't ask.
Some questions that could be considered discriminatory include:
- Are you married?
- What is that accent you have?
- Where is your spouse from?
- Are you engaged?
- Do you have children?
- Where are you from?
- Were you born here?
- What is your ethnic heritage?
- What church do you go to?
- How old are you?
- When were you born?
- When did you graduate from high school?
If an applicant should offer some information voluntarily about one of these areas, we recommend that you ignore it. Don't respond to it and don't follow up on it. Don't even include it in your notes. It could be used to prove you discriminated if there is a notation about the applicant's protected status.